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Paper money is the pieces of currency we use to buy goods and media. Today, there are seven different denominations: the $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100 bills.

How it works

Using the old Currency Overprinting and Processing Equipment (formerly conventional equipment as of 1976 on all denominations), paper money is printed in 32-subject sheets. During the mid-2000s, each sheet of $1 bills comprised of serial numbers with the third and fourth digits ranging from the first number to that plus 31.

For $1 bills using LEPE, every sheet has the fifth and sixth digits ranging from 00 to 49. Therefore, the first sheet comprises of "0001", "0101", "0201", etc., and all the way up to "4901". The second sheet comprises of "0002", "0102", "0202", etc., and all the way up to "4902". The 50th sheet comprises of "0050", "0150", "0250", etc., and all the way up to "4950". The 100th sheet comprises of "0100", "0200", "0300", etc., and all the way up to "5000". Thus, there are 100 sheets per 5,000 $1 bills.

The 101st sheet comprises of "5001", "5101", "5201", etc., and all the way up to "9901". The 102nd sheet comprises of "5002", "5102", "5202", etc., and all the way up to "9902". The 150th sheet comprises of "5050", "5150", "5250", etc., and all the way up to "9950". The 200th sheet comprises of "5100", "5200", "5300", etc., and all the way up to "0000" at the next 10,000th number.

Thus, there are 200 sheets in every 10,000 $1 bills.

There are 16,000 bills, or 320 sheets, in a pack of cash, and there are 40 packs of cash in one skid, for a total of 640,000 bills. Thus, a single print run of $1, $2, $5, $10 and $20 bills would comprise of 10 skids, while for the $50 and $100 bills, it's five skids.

New currency usually arrives to circulation about two months after they are printed.

Federal Reserve Banks

There are 12 in all, each representing the Federal Reserve Districts created by the Federal Reserve Act, a year before all 12 banks were officially opened on November 16, 1914. The banks are:

  1. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
  2. Federal Reserve Bank of New York
  3. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
  4. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
  5. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
  6. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
  7. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
  8. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
  9. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
  10. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City
  11. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
  12. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

Until late 1987, the BEP usually printed $1, $5, $10 and $20 bills for more than half of all 12 Federal Reserve Districts per month; after that, it was less than half.

Denominations

$1

$1-G (2018)

The $1 bill contains the smallest value of all Federal Reserve Notes today. Before 1963, this denomination was always a Silver Certificate for 30 years, until when the Silver Certificates were replaced by all Federal Reserve Notes, which have remained unchaged since. The first COPE serial numbers were printed on $1 bills in 1971, while the last conventional notes were printed exclusively as Star Notes in September 1979, as Series 1977 notes. Serial numbers higher than 99840000 on $1, $5 and $10 bills were last printed in 1977, before the uncut sheets.

According to inflation rates, an uncirculated $1 Silver Certificate would be worth at least $8 as of August 2017, but most old currency auction sites only buy them for $1.50 in average circulated condition, which would be about 19% of the intended retail price.

A $1 United States Note with a red seal printing would be worth at least $20 as of June 2018, but they can actually be sold for as much as $50 or more, depending on the condition.

$2

$2-K (2015)

The rarest of all Federal Reserve Notes still in use today is the $2 bill. Prior to 1976, the $2 bill was always a United States Note with a red seal, and it first became a Federal Reserve Note when it was reintroduced in honor of the 200th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. The first $2 bills with green seals were released to circulation on April 13, 1976.

According to inflation rates, a $2 United States Note would be worth at least $15 as of April 2014, but most old currency auction sites only buy them for $2.50, which is about 17% of the intended retail price.

$5

$5-H (2013)

The $5 bill is less common than the $1 bill, but way more common than the $2 bill. Until 1964, this denomination came in three different kinds of notes: Federal Reserve Note, United States Note and Silver Certificate; afterwards, the first modern-day notes were delivered to the Federal Reserve for release to circulation on September 16, 1964. All denominations of $5 and higher were given COPE notes starting in 1976, and the last conventional notes for $5, $10 and $20 bills were printed exclusively as Star Notes in July 1979. Also like bigger denominations, the $5 bill was given anti-counterfeiting security features as well as new designs, the most recent on March 13, 2008.

According to inflation rates, an uncirculated $5 Silver Certificate or United States Note would be worth approximately $40 as of 2017, depending on the series year.

$10

$10-L (2018)

The $10 bill is even less common than the $10 bill, but also a lot more common than the $2 bill. This denomination also had a Silver Certificate until 1962, when it transitioned to just a Federal Reserve Note, with the first modern-day notes delivered to the Federal Reserve on April 24, 1964. Anti-counterfeiting security features including new designs were given to the $10 bill over the years, the most recent on March 2, 2006.

According to inflation rates, an uncirculated $10 Silver Certificate's price ranges between $80 and $90 as of 2017, depending on the series year.

$20

$20-B (2018)

The $20 bill is the mostly used Federal Reserve Note for purchasing more expensive items. In fact, this denomination has always been a Federal Reserve Note for over 80 years, after all obsolete types of the note were discontinued. The first modern-day $20 bills were delivered to the Federal Reserve on October 7, 1964. The last notes with serial numbers higher than 99840000 were printed in August 1976, before the uncut sheets. Over the years, the $20 bill was given anti-counterfeiting security features including new designs, the most recent on October 9, 2003.

$50

$50-B (2014)

The least common of the six main denominations used today is the $50 bill. Like the $20 bill, this denomination was always a Federal Reserve Note for more than 80 years, after the discontinuation of all obsolete types of the note. For both the $50 and $100 bills, the last conventional serial numbers were printed in October 1978, exclusively as Star Notes. The $50 bill was given anti-counterfeiting security features including new designs throughout the years, the most recent on September 28, 2004.

$100

$100-B (2017)

The $100 bill is the largest denomination in circulation today. There was a brief run of United States Notes for the $100 bill in 1968 and 1971, but nowadays, like all other denominations, the $100 bill is now only a Federal Reserve Note. The $100 bill was the first to be given anti-counterfeiting security features in 1991 and 1996, and the last for its most recent design on April 21, 2010 (although circulation did not begin until October 8, 2013).

According to inflation rates, uncirculated $100 United States Notes printed in 1968 would be worth about $700 as of 2017, while those printed in 1971 would be worth $600.

Production timeline

Note: Determined by fiscal year.

Date Event Notes
July 10, 1929 All small-size currency released to circulation, starting off with $1 Silver Certificates, $2 United States Notes, Federal Reserve Notes in $5 and higher denominations, and Gold Certificates in $10 and higher denominations. Early notes featured signatures of H.T. Tate and A.W. Mellon, while later notes had W.O. Woods' signature in place of Tate's.
February 13, 1932 Ogden L. Mills' signature replaces Mellon's.
March 28, 1933 W.H. Woodin's signature replaces Mills'.
April 26, 1933 For only 10 days, the $1 United States Note was in production. These notes remained uncirculated until 1948.
May 1, 1933 All Gold Certificates were withdrawn from circulation after the Executive Order 6102 passed into law. Since then, all further $10 bills and higher denominations were always Federal Reserve Notes.
September 1, 1933 W.A. Julian's signature replaces Woods'.
January 5, 1934 The $10 bill gets a Silver Certificate design. These notes started off as Series 1933 notes.
February 19, 1934 Henry Morgenthau's signature replaces Woodin's.
June 29, 1934 The $1 Silver Certificate gets redesigned for Series 1934.
October 17, 1934 All Federal Reserve Notes (those still in $5 and higher denominations) get redesigned for Series 1934, starting with the $10 bill.
November 25, 1935 The $1 Silver Certificate gets redesigned again, for Series 1935.
July 26, 1945 Fred M. Vinson's signature replaces Morgenthau's.
December 27, 1945 As of this date, the $100 bill is the largest denomination currently in production. Anything higher than $100 was officially discontinued on July 14, 1969. Despite this, there are still roughly $260 million of notes in these denominations in circulation.
June 25, 1946 John W. Snyder's signature replaces Vinson's.
July 11, 1949 Georgia Neese Clark's signature replaces Julian's.
November 7, 1950 All Federal Reserve Notes (those still in $5 and higher denominations) get redesigned for Series 1950. Silver Certificates and United States Notes still remained in their then-current designs until 1953 (1957 for $1 bills).
January 30, 1953 Ivy Baker Priest's signature replaces Clark's, and G.M. Humphrey's signature replaces Snyder's.
May 2, 1953 All United States Notes -- and later, Silver Certificates in $5 and $10 denominations -- all get redesigned for Series 1953.
September 4, 1957 Robert B. Anderson's signature replaces Humphrey's.
October 1, 1957 The first Series 1957 $1 bills, now printed in 32-subject sheets, were released to circulation. It contained the motto "In God We Trust" for the first time.
January 27, 1961 Elizabeth Rudel Smith's signature replaces Priest's, and C. Douglas Dillon's signature replaces Anderson's.
March 14, 1962 The last $10 Silver Certificates were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks. Afterwards, all denominations from $10 to $100 have now always been Federal Reserve Notes.
January 5, 1963 Kathryn O'Hay Granahan's signature replaces Smith's.
November 6, 1963 The $1 bill transitions from Silver Certificate to Federal Reserve Note for Series 1963. The $5, $10 and $20 denominations were redesigned in 1964.
August 31, 1964 The last $5 Silver Certificates were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks, officially phasing out the Silver Certificate.
May 12, 1965 Henry H. Fowler's signature replaces Dillon's for Series 1963A.
July 29, 1965 The last $2 United States Notes were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks. Until 1976, they still remained the latest $2 bills in circulation.
September 27, 1966 The $100 bill was redesigned for Series 1963A, then the $50 bill.
November 27, 1967 The last $5 United States Notes were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks. Afterwards, all $5 bills in production were now just Federal Reserve Notes, as of Series 1963A.
October 14, 1968 For less than a month, $100 United States Notes labeled "Series 1966" were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks.
January 31, 1969 Joseph W. Barr's signature replaces Fowler's. This only applied to the $1 bill. $5 bills and anything higher still retained Fowler's signature until 1969.
July 9, 1969 Dorothy Andrews Elston's signature replaces Granahan's, and David M. Kennedy's signature replaces Fowler's and Barr's.
December 1970 Dorothy Andrews Elston revises her signature to "Dorothy Andrews Kabis". This signature did not appear on denominations higher than $1 until after John B. Connally took office.
January 26, 1971 The last United States Notes, the Series 1966A $100 bills, were delivered to Federal Reserve Banks. Ever since after that time, all paper money in production were now Federal Reserve Notes. Elston's old signature was retained on these notes.
May 31, 1971 John B. Connally's signature replaces Kennedy's for Series 1969A (1969B for $1 bills).
May 12, 1972 Romana Acosta Bañuelos' signature replaces Kabis' for Series 1969B (1969C for $1 bills). Bañuelos' signature did not appear on the $100 bill until Series 1969C.
August 31, 1972 George P. Shultz's signature replaces Connally's for Series 1969C (1969D for $1 bills).
August 1, 1974 For Series 1974, Francine I. Neff's signature replaces Bañuelos', and William E. Simon's signature replaces Shultz's.
April 13, 1976 The $2 bill was brought back as a Series 1976 Federal Reserve Note.
September 1977 For Series 1977, Azie Taylor Morton's signature replaces Neff's, and W.M. Blumenthal's signature replaces Simon's. $2 bills still remained Series 1976 notes.
October 1979 For Series 1977A, G. William Miller's signature replaces Blumenthal's. The $20, $50 and $100 bills still retained Blumenthal's signature until 1981 and 1982.
July 1981 For Series 1981, Angela M. Buchanan's signature replaces Morton's, and Donald T. Regan's signature replaces Blumenthal's and Miller's.
March 1984 For Series 1981A, Katherine Davalos Ortega's signature replaces Buchanan's.
May 1985 For Series 1985, James A. Baker III's signature replaces Regan's.
December 1988 For Series 1988, Nicholas F. Brady's signature replaces Baker's. The $10 and $20 bills did not carry this signature until Series 1988A.
March 1990 For Series 1988A, Catalina Vasquez Villalpando's signature replaces Ortega's. The $50 and $100 bills did not carry this signature until Series 1990.
February 1991 Fort Worth's Bureau of Engraving and Printing officially began production of paper money, starting with the Series 1988A $1 bill.
May 1991 For Series 1990, microscopic printing was added around the portraits as an anti-counterfeiting security feature. The $5 bill first got this security feature in late 1994, while the $1 and $2 bills never got it at all.
April 1994 For Series 1993, Mary Ellen Withrow's signature replaces Villalpando's, and Lloyd Bentsen's signature replaces Brady's.
May 1995 For Series 1995, Robert E. Rubin's signature replaces Bentsen's. The $50 and $100 bills did not carry this signature until they were redesigned in 1996 and 1997.
September 27, 1995 For Series 1996, the $100 bill was redesigned. Circulation began on March 25, 1996.
June 12, 1997 The $50 bill was redesigned. Circulation began on October 27, 1997.
May 20, 1998 The $20 bill was redesigned. Circulation began on September 24, 1998. The $1, $5 and $10 bills remained as Series 1995 notes.
October 1999 For Series 1999, Lawrence H. Summers' signature replaces Rubin's. The $2 and $50 bills never got this signature.
November 16, 1999 The $5 and $10 bills were redesigned for Series 1999.
November 2001 For Series 2001, Rosario Marin's signature replaces Withrow's, and Paul O'Neill's signature replaces Summers'.
May 13, 2003 For Series 2003 and 2004, John W. Snow's signature replaces O'Neill's, and the $20 bill's current design is unveiled. Circulation began on October 9, 2003.
April 26, 2004 The $50 bill's current design is unveiled.

Circulation began on September 28, 2004.

Anything that never got redesigned before Anna Escobedo Cabral took office were Series 2003 notes.

May 2005 For Series 2003A and 2004A, Anna Escobedo Cabral's signature replaces Marin's.
September 28, 2005 The $10 bill's current design is unveiled.

Circulation began on March 2, 2006.

Anything that never got redesigned before Henry Paulson took office were Series 2003A notes.

November 2006 For Series 2006, Henry M. Paulson's signature replaces Snow's. The $2 bill never got this signature.
September 20, 2007 The $5 bill's current design is unveiled. Circulation began on March 13, 2008.
December 2009 For Series 2009, Rosa Gumataotao Rios' signature replaces Cabral's, and Timothy F. Geithner's signature replaces Paulson's.
April 21, 2010 The $100 bill's current design is unveiled. Circulation was planned to begin on February 10, 2011.
October 1, 2010 Due to creasing of the paper during production of the new $100 bill, it was delayed to an unknown later date. This is a clear reason why there are Series 2006A and 2009A $100 bills.
June 18, 2013 For Series 2013, Jack Lew's signature replaces Geithner's.
October 8, 2013 The $100 bill is finally released to circulation, as a Series 2009A. During Lew's years as Secretary of the Treasury, this denomination always carried Geithner's signature.
November 15, 2017 For Series 2017, Jovita Carranza's and Steven T. Mnuchin's signatures are unveiled on new $1 bills. Until 2019, all $2, $5, $50 and $100 bills still carried Rios and Lew's signatures.

Annual production reports

Fiscal year Denomination Amount printed Notes
FY 1980
(October 1979–September 1980)
$1 1,939,840,000 371,840,000 as Series 1977 notes
1,568,000,000 as Series 1977A notes
$5 427,520,000 173,440,000 as Series 1977 notes
254,080,000 as Series 1977A notes
$10 495,360,000 248,320,000 as Series 1977 notes
247,040,000 as Series 1977A notes
$20 634,880,000 All as Series 1977 notes
$50 56,960,000 All as Series 1977 notes
Last printed in July 1980
$100 100,480,000 All as Series 1977 notes
Last printed in July 1980
FY 1981
(October 1980–September 1981)
$1 1,954,560,000 1,784,320,000 as Series 1977A notes
170,240,000 as Series 1981 notes
$5 519,680,000 All as Series 1977A notes
$10 536,320,000 All as Series 1977A notes
$20 812,800,000 1,280,000 as Series 1981 notes
All the rest as Series 1977 notes
$50 67,200,000 All as Series 1977 notes
Last printed in July 1981
$100 118,400,000 All as Series 1977 notes
Last printed in July 1981
FY 1982
(October 1981–September 1982)
$1 2,040,320,000 All as Series 1981 notes
$5 614,400,000 10,240,000 as Series 1977A notes
604,160,000 as Series 1981 notes
$10 540,160,000 206,080,000 as Series 1977A notes
334,080,000 as Series 1981 notes
$20 683,520,000 1,280,000 as Series 1977 notes
All the rest as Series 1981 notes
$50 94,720,000 30,720,000 as Series 1977 notes
64,000,000 as Series 1981 notes
Last printed in May 1982
$100 108,800,000 70,400,000 as Series 1977 notes
38,400,000 as Series 1981 notes
FY 1983
(October 1982–September 1983)
$1 2,229,760,000 All as Series 1981 notes

Last fiscal year where the BEP's standard press run was 40,000 sheets.

$5 583,680,000
$10 592,640,000
$20 994,560,000
$50 115,200,000
$100 85,760,000
FY 1984
(October 1983–September 1984)
$1 2,771,200,000 1,097,600,000 as Series 1981 notes
1,673,600,000 as Series 1981A notes
$5 716,800,000 396,800,000 as Series 1981 notes
320,000,000 as Series 1981A notes
$10 812,800,000 512,000,000 as Series 1981 notes
300,800,000 as Series 1981A notes
$20 1,292,800,000 832,000,000 as Series 1981 notes
460,800,000 as Series 1981A notes
$50 128,000,000 All as Series 1981 notes
$100 137,600,000 All as Series 1981 notes
FY 1985
(October 1984–September 1985)
$1 2,851,200,000 2,022,400,000 as Series 1981A notes
828,800,000 as Series 1985 notes
$5 777,600,000 521,600,000 as Series 1981A notes
256,000,000 as Series 1985 notes
$10 784,000,000 729,600,000 as Series 1981A notes
54,400,000 as Series 1985 notes
$20 1,449,600,000 All as Series 1981A notes
$50 137,600,000 Nearly all as Series 1981A notes
768,000 Series 1981 Star Notes
$100 160,000,000 16,000,000 as Series 1981 notes
144,000,000 as Series 1981A notes
FY 1986
(October 1985–September 1986)
$1 3,123,200,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$5 844,800,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$10 678,000,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$20 1,475,200,000 118,400,000 as Series 1981A notes
1,356,800,000 as Series 1985 notes
$50 182,400,000 Nearly all as Series 1985 notes
704,000 Series 1981A Star Notes
$100 176,000,000 32,000,000 as Series 1981A notes
144,000,000 as Series 1985 notes
FY 1987
(October 1986–September 1987)
$1 3,232,000,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$5 780,800,000
$10 697,600,000
$20 1,472,000,000
$50 195,200,000
$100 217,600,000
FY 1988
(October 1987–September 1988)
$1 2,960,000,000 All as Series 1985 notes
First $1 bills with serial numbers ending with letters "M" onwards
$5 745,600,000
$10 652,800,000
$20 1,350,400,000
$50 144,400,000
$100 160,000,000
FY 1989
(October 1988–September 1989)
$1 2,860,800,000 675,200,000 as Series 1985 notes
2,185,600,000 as Series 1988 notes
$5 835,200,000 396,800,000 as Series 1985 notes
438,400,000 as Series 1988 notes
$10 771,200,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$20 1,526,400,000 All as Series 1985 notes
$50 134,400,000 64,000,000 as Series 1985 notes
70,400,000 as Series 1988 notes
$100 201,600,000 76,800,000 as Series 1985 notes
124,800,000 as Series 1988 notes
FY 1990
(October 1989–September 1990)
$1 3,148,800,000 1,817,600,000 as Series 1988 notes
1,331,200,000 as Series 1988A notes
$5 912,000,000 662,400,000 as Series 1988 notes
249,600,000 as Series 1988A notes
$10 771,200,000 496,000,000 as Series 1985 notes
275,200,000 as Series 1988A notes
$20 1,801,600,000 1,305,600,000 as Series 1985 notes
496,000,000 as Series 1988A notes
$50 128,000,000 All as Series 1988 notes
$100 240,000,000 All as Series 1988 notes
FY 1991
(October 1990–September 1991)
$1 3,212,800,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$5 979,200,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$10 812,800,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$20 1,926,400,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$50 128,000,000 All as Series 1988 notes
$100 956,800,000 211,200,000 as Series 1988 notes
745,600,000 as Series 1990 notes
FY 1992
(October 1991–September 1992)
$1 4,089,600,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$5 787,200,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$10 1,036,800,000 723,200,000 as Series 1988A notes
313,600,000 as Series 1990 notes
$20 1,760,000,000 1,120,000,000 as Series 1988A notes
640,000,000 as Series 1990 notes
$50 556,800,000 All as Series 1990 notes
$100 217,600,000 All as Series 1990 notes
FY 1993
(October 1992–September 1993)
$1 3,513,600,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$5 1,126,400,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$10 640,800,000 All as Series 1990 notes
$20 2,169,600,000 All as Series 1990 notes
$50 259,200,000 All as Series 1990 notes
$100 323,200,000 All as Series 1990 notes
FY 1994
(October 1993–September 1994)
$1 4,563,200,000 2,873,600,000 as Series 1988A notes
1,689,600,000 as Series 1993 notes
$5 1,004,800,000 All as Series 1988A notes
$10 793,600,000 All as Series 1990 notes
$20 2,252,800,000 1,548,800,000 as Series 1990 notes
704,000,000 as Series 1993 notes
$50 115,200,000 19,200,000 as Series 1990 notes
96,000,000 as Series 1993 notes
$100 604,800,000 All as Series 1990 notes
FY 1995
(October 1994–September 1995)
$1 4,428,800,000 2,550,400,000 as Series 1993 notes
1,878,400,000 as Series 1995 notes
$5 992,000,000 134,400,000 as Series 1988A notes
716,800,000 as Series 1993 notes
140,800,000 as Series 1995 notes (up to July 1995)
$10 672,000,000 Nearly all as Series 1993 notes
4,480,000 Series 1990 Star Notes
$20 2,476,800,000 Nearly all as Series 1993 notes
5,760,000 Series 1990 Star Notes
83,200,000 as Series 1995 notes
$50 147,200,000 All as Series 1993 notes
$100 595,200,000 All as Series 1993 notes
FY 1996
(October 1995–September 1996)
$1 4,166,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$2 51,200,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$5 1,158,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$10 1,011,200,000 384,000,000 as Series 1993 notes
627,200,000 as Series 1995 notes
$20 1,363,200,000 416,000,000 as Series 1993 notes
947,200,000 as Series 1995 notes
$50 441,600,000 All as Series 1993 notes
$100 1,251,200,000 All as Series 1996 notes
FY 1997
(October 1996–September 1997)
$1 4,646,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$2 102,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$5 896,000,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$10 998,400,000 192,000,000 as Series 1993 notes
806,400,000 as Series 1995 notes
$20 1,881,600,000 230,400,000 as Series 1993 notes
1,651,200,000 as Series 1995 notes
$50 406,400,000 121,600,000 as Series 1993 notes
284,800,000 as Series 1996 notes
$100 649,600,000 All as Series 1996 notes
FY 1998
(October 1997–September 1998)
$1 3,814,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$5 857,600,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$10 761,600,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$20 2,278,400,000 121,600,000 as Series 1995 notes
2,156,800,000 as Series 1996 notes
$50 723,200,000 All as Series 1996 notes
$100 764,800,000 All as Series 1996 notes
FY 1999
(October 1998–September 1999)
$1 3,539,200,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$5 832,000,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$10 614,400,000 All as Series 1995 notes
$20 4,134,400,000 All as Series 1996 notes
$50 694,400,000 All as Series 1996 notes
$100 1,542,400,000 All as Series 1996 notes
FY 2000
(October 1999–September 2000)
$1 5,190,400,000 544,000,000 as Series 1995 notes
4,646,400,000 as Series 1999 notes
$5 640,000,000 166,400,000 as Series 1995 notes
473,600,000 as Series 1999 notes
$10 492,800,000 64,000,000 as Series 1995 notes
428,800,000 as Series 1999 notes
$20 2,707,200,000 569,600,000 as Series 1996 notes
2,137,600,000 as Series 1999 notes
FY 2001
(October 2000–September 2001)
$1 5,145,600,000 All as Series 1999 notes
$5 979,200,000
$10 652,800,000
$20 1,017,600,000
$100 201,600,000
FY 2002
(October 2001–September 2002)
$1 2,880,000,000 736,000,000 as Series 1999 notes
2,144,000,000 as Series 2001 notes
$5 1,350,400,000 236,800,000 as Series 1999 notes
1,113,600,000 as Series 2001 notes
$10 1,100,800,000 185,600,000 as Series 1999 notes
915,200,000 as Series 2001 notes
$20 1,068,800,000 294,400,000 as Series 1999 notes
774,400,000 as Series 2001 notes
$100 604,800,000 310,400,000 as Series 1999 notes
294,400,000 as Series 2001 notes
FY 2003
(October 2002–September 2003)
$1 3,699,200,000 2,777,600,000 as Series 2001 notes
921,600,000 as Series 2003 notes
$5 550,400,000 All as Series 2001 notes
$10 249,600,000 153,600,000 as Series 2001 notes
96,000,000 as Series 2003 notes
$20 2,700,800,000 1,785,600,000 as Series 2001 notes
915,200,000 as Series 2004 notes
$50 102,400,000 All as Series 2001 notes
$100 854,400,000 All as Series 2001 notes
FY 2004
(October 2003–September 2004)
$1 4,147,200,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$2 121,600,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$5 627,200,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$10 403,200,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$20 2,707,200,000 All as Series 2004 notes
$50 211,200,000 70,400,000 as Series 2001 notes
140,800,000 as Series 2004 notes
$100 515,200,000 3,200,000 as Series 2001 notes
512,000,000 as Series 2003 notes
FY 2005
(October 2004–September 2005)
$1 3,475,200,000 2,086,400,000 as Series 2003 notes
1,388,800,000 as Series 2003A notes
$5 576,000,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$10 512,000,000 All as Series 2003 notes
$20 3,059,200,000 1,868,800,000 as Series 2004 notes
1,190,400,000 as Series 2004A notes
$50 345,600,000 259,200,000 as Series 2004 notes
86,400,000 as Series 2004A notes
$100 668,800,000 508,800,000 as Series 2003 notes
160,000,000 as Series 2003A notes
FY 2006
(October 2005–September 2006)
$1 4,512,000,000 All as Series 2003A notes
$2 230,400,000 All as Series 2003A notes
$5 800,000,000 83,200,000 as Series 2003 notes
716,800,000 as Series 2003A notes
$10 851,200,000 All as Series 2004A notes
$20 889,600,000 All as Series 2004A notes
$100 950,400,000 All as Series 2003A notes
FY 2007
(October 2006–September 2007)
$1 4,147,200,000 1,875,200,000 as Series 2003A notes
2,272,000,000 as Series 2006 notes
$5 1,401,600,000 1,036,800,000 as Series 2003A notes
364,800,000 as Series 2006 notes
All Series 2006 notes are in the old design.
$10 83,200,000 All as Series 2006 notes
All printed in September 2007
$20 1,971,200,000 57,600,000 as Series 2004A notes
1,913,600,000 as Series 2006 notes
$50 428,800,000 160,000,000 as Series 2004A notes
268,800,000 as Series 2006 notes
$100 1,088,000,000 422,400,000 as Series 2003A notes
665,600,000 as Series 2006 notes
FY 2008
(October 2007–September 2008)
$1 3,577,600,000 All as Series 2006 notes
44,800,000 of the $5 bills are still in the old design.
$5 1,203,200,000
$10 1,094,400,000
$20 633,600,000
$100 1,209,600,000
FY 2009
(October 2008–September 2009)
$1 2,636,800,000 All as Series 2006 notes
$5 384,000,000
$10 345,600,000
$20 716,800,000
$50 371,200,000
$100 1,785,600,000
FY 2010
(October 2009–September 2010)
$1 1,856,000,000 1,139,200,000 as Series 2006 notes
716,800,000 as Series 2009 notes
$5 352,000,000 All as Series 2006 notes
$20 2,265,600,000 1,043,200,000 as Series 2006 notes
1,222,400,000 as Series 2009 notes
$100 1,907,200,000 854,400,000 as Series 2006 notes
1,052,800,000 as Series 2009 notes
FY 2011
(October 2010–September 2011)
$1 2,918,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$5 486,400,000 230,400,000 as Series 2006 notes
256,000,000 as Series 2009 notes
$10 499,200,000 6,400,000 as Series 2006 notes
492,800,000 as Series 2009 notes
$20 902,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$50 179,200,000 9,600,000 as Series 2006 notes
169,600,000 as Series 2009 notes
$100 723,200,000 All as Series 2006A notes
FY 2012
(October 2011–September 2012)
$1 2,022,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$2 134,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$5 729,600,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$10 652,800,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$20 1,568,000,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$50 246,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$100 3,027,200,000 1,926,400,000 as Series 2006A notes
1,100,800,000 as Series 2009A notes
FY 2013
(October 2012–September 2013)
$1 1,792,000,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$5 480,000,000 217,600,000 as Series 2009 notes
262,400,000 as Series 2013 notes
$10 313,600,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$20 518,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$50 246,400,000 All as Series 2009 notes
$100 4,428,800,000 892,800,000 as Series 2006A notes
3,536,000,000 as Series 2009A notes
FY 2014
(October 2013–September 2014)
$1 2,278,400,000 1,561,600,000 as Series 2009 notes
716,800,000 as Series 2013 notes
$2 32,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$5 563,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$10 486,400,000 6,400,000 as Series 2009 notes
All the rest as Series 2013 notes
$20 1,785,600,000 6,400,000 as Series 2009 notes
All the rest as Series 2013 notes
$50 220,800,000 3,200,000 as Series 2009 notes
All the rest as Series 2013 notes
$100 640,000,000 All as Series 2009A notes
FY 2015
(October 2014–September 2015)
$1 2,451,200,000 6,400,000 as Series 2009 notes
All the rest as Series 2013 notes
$2 32,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$5 755,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$10 627,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$20 1,868,800,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$50 220,800,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$100 1,078,400,000 937,600,000 as Series 2009A notes
140,800,000 as Series 2013 notes
The Series 2013 notes were not released.
FY 2016
(October 2015–September 2016)
$1 2,425,600,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$2 179,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$5 819,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$10 480,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$20 1,939,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$50 224,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$100 1,516,800,000 All as Series 2009A notes
FY 2017
(October 2016–September 2017)
$1 2,425,600,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$5 915,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$10 262,400,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$20 1,715,200,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$50 268,800,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$100 1,516,800,000 796,800,000 as Series 2009A notes
720,000,000 as Series 2013 notes
FY 2018
(October 2017–September 2018)
$1 2,163,200,000 736,000,000 as Series 2013 notes
1,427,200,000 as Series 2017 notes
$5 825,600,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$10 569,600,000 332,800,000 as Series 2013 notes
236,800,000 as Series 2017 notes
$20 1,862,400,000 505,600,000 as Series 2013 notes
1,356,800,000 as Series 2017 notes
$50 364,800,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$100 1,753,600,000 All as Series 2013 notes
FY 2019
(October 2018–September 2019)
$1 2,137,600,000 All as Series 2017 notes
$2 160,000,000 57,600,000 as Series 2013 notes
102,400,000 as Series 2017A notes
$5 736,000,000 710,400,000 as Series 2013 notes
25,600,000 as Series 2017A notes
$10 339,200,000 All as Series 2017 notes
$20 1,356,800,000 1,068,800,000 as Series 2017 notes
288,000,000 as Series 2017A notes
$50 224,000,000 All as Series 2013 notes
$100 1,484,800,000 1,430,400,000 as Series 2013 notes
54,400,000 as Series 2017A notes

Lifespans

Denomination 2011 2012 2013 2014-Present
$1 4.7 years 4.8 years 5.9 years 5.8 years
$5 3.8 years 3.8 years 4.9 years 5.5 years
$10 3.6 years 3.6 years 4.2 years 4.5 years
$20 7 years 6.7 years 7.7 years 7.9 years
$50 11.9 years 9.6 years 3.7 years 8.5 years
$100 21.6 years 17.9 years 15 years 15 years

Currency in circulation

(in billions of notes, as of December 31 of each year)

Year  $1 $2  $5  $10  $20  $50  $100  Total
1980 ≈3.1 0.86
1981 ≈3.3 0.9
1982 ≈3.5 0.94
1983 ≈3.7 0.98 1.05 2.62 0.482 0.63
1984 ≈3.9 1.02 1.08 2.73 0.505 0.71
1985 ≈4.1 1.06 1.11 2.835 0.53 0.795
1986 ≈4.3 1.1 1.14 2.95 0.56 0.89
1987 ≈4.5 1.14 1.17 3.07 0.585 1.0
1988 ≈4.7 1.18 1.2 3.19 0.61 1.12
1989 ≈4.9 1.22 1.23 3.3 0.65 1.25
1990 5.1 0.4 1.26 1.26 3.45 0.678 1.402 13.55
1991 5.34 0.44 1.284 1.264 3.502 0.712 1.572 14.114
1992 5.5 0.45 1.34 1.3 3.665 0.76 1.771 14.786
1993 5.7 0.47 1.38 1.32 3.745 0.82 2.015 15.45
1994 6.1 0.5 1.46 1.38 4.025 0.878 2.291 16.634
1995 6.3 0.5 1.5 1.41 4.21 0.928 2.415 17.263
1996 6.6 0.54 1.56 1.43 4.355 0.972 2.614 18.0 (<18.071)
1997 6.7 0.55 1.56 1.42 4.4 0.964 2.916 18.51
1998 7.0 0.6 1.6 1.43 4.545 1.01 3.201 19.3 (<19.386)
1999 7.5 0.6 1.8 1.62 5.805 1.294 3.862 22.481
2000 7.7 0.6 1.78 1.45 4.93 1.1 3.777 21.337
2001 7.8 0.64 1.84 1.47 5.045 1.14 4.211 22.146
2002 8.0 0.65 1.88 1.49 5.185 1.17 4.587 22.9 (<22.962)
2003 8.2 0.65 1.94 1.51 5.39 1.198 4.878 23.766
2004 8.3 0.7 1.96 1.51 5.38 1.212 5.167 24.229
2005 8.8 0.74 2.06 1.55 5.77 1.242 5.4496 25.6116
2006 9.0 0.75 2.1 1.6 5.96 1.256 5.641 26.4 (>26.307)
2007 9.3 0.8 2.16 1.62 6.09 1.26 5.693 26.923
2008 9.5 0.84 2.2 1.63 6.255 1.294 6.25 27.9 (<27.969)
2009 9.6 0.85 2.24 1.62 6.375 1.306 6.564 28.5 (<28.555)
2010 9.7 0.9 2.3 1.66 6.53 1.338 7.046 29.474
2011 10.0 0.94 2.36 1.72 7.055 1.392 7.826 31.293
2012 10.3 1.0 2.44 1.77 7.445 1.45 8.631 33.036
2013 10.6 1.04 2.54 1.846 7.748 1.49 9.247 34.511
2014 11.0 1.1 2.62 1.89 8.11 1.538 10.145 36.403
2015 11.4 1.14 2.74 1.9 8.565 1.596 10.822 38.1 (<38.163)
2016 11.7 1.15 2.84 1.92 8.86 1.67 11.548 39.8 (>39.688)
2017 12.1 1.2 2.96 1.96 9.19 1.728 12.517 41.6 (<41.655)
2018 12.4 1.25 3.06 2.01 9.425 1.784 13.435 43.364
2019 ≈12.7

Note: Years before 1990 are just my own estimates. The average annual increases for each denomination are as follows: 200 million more per year for $1 bills, 1.03 times for $5 bills, 1.02 times for $10 bills, 1.04 times for $20 bills, 1.04 to 1.05 times for $50 bills, and 1.09 to 1.1 times for $100 bills.

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